Serdar Samur (Corresponding author)
Department of Sports Management, Sports Science Faculty
Istanbul Gedik University, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract Organizational stagnation occurs in every system where basic cultural change slows down, and the current situation becomes the usual option until conscious and consistent cultural change initiatives are implemented. It is seen that sports organizations in our country cannot make the desired change in their organizations, although they apply modern management approaches to increase their performance.The study aims to determine the cultural variables and their sub-titles that affect the increase of sports organizations’ performance. This research was conducted according to qualitative research methods. In the research, 4 different types of culture emerged as Solidarity and Cooperation, Innovative, Being Competitive, and Emphasis on Hierarchy. It has been determined that these types of culture are similar to Clan, Adhocracy, Marketing,and Hierarchy Culture types defined as dominant cultural differences in Quinn and Cameron’s competitive values model.
Keywords: Organizational culture, Cultural variables, Transition, Performance
In today’s conditions where the technological ecosystem is constantly changing, social life and culture are also changing. Change in social life also triggers organizational change.
In the changing innovative culture, the strong mutual relationship environment that will connect people together will contribute to the spirit of togetherness and the development of the environment of trust. As trust develops in this regard, it will be easier to adapt to innovation and to become a lifestyle of innovation, which will contribute to the positive development of work ethics and the formation of behaviors that facilitate continuous learning. The increase in self-confidence in the individuals of the institution will pave the way for the establishment of a corporate culture that encourages productivity, development, and risk taking.
Identifying the dominant character in the current organizational culture will be needed to define the transition to an innovative cultural environment and to manage change.
Many organizational workers and observers now acknowledge that organizational culture has a strong impact on the performance and effectiveness of the organization (Cameron & Ettington, 1988; Denison, 1990; Trice & Beyer, 1993).
Organizations are social entities that have a connection with the external environment and are designed as activity systems that are structured and coordinated in advance towards a specific goal (Daft, 2004). Organizational culture is considered as a subculture of society culture. John Van Maanen explains the organizational culture with the information shared by the individuals who constitute the organization, the information exchange between them, and the routine and non-routine activities within the organization.
Organizational culture is a type of culture shaped by organizational practices related to the organizational environment (Oudenhoven, 2001). Organizational culture can be defined as beliefs, attitudes, and values that are shared and relatively stable within an organization (Mwaura et al., 1998). Organizational culture consists of a series of symbols, ceremonies, and myths.
The different cultural power developed by successful companies undertakes the task of creating a common meanings system, expectations, intergenerational basic values and norms, creating a collective identity and loyalty, and enlightening the vision of the future (Trice & Beyer, 1993).
There are two approaches to define and evaluate the organizational culture. These are the comparative and contingency approach and the approach that takes culture as the organization itself. The comparative and contingency approach is considered as a variable, and organizational culture is considered as a phenomenon that is shaped according to the external environment it is in, and the internal characteristics and relations.
According to the other approach that is affected by anthropology and treats Culture as the Organization Itself, culture is not a variable in the organization, but the organization itself. According to this point of view, organizational culture is examined not only through material data but rather with symbolic, expressive,and intellectual data.
In the literature, the perspective that organizations are culture is more accepted (Cameron & Quinn, 2011). Within the framework of these approaches, the organizational culture models named below were created and examined by scientists:
- Parsons Model
- B. Schein Model
- Kilmann Model
- Quinn and Cameron Model
- Byars Model
- Deal and Kennedy Model
- Miles and Snow Model
- Ouchi’s “Z” Culture Model
- Peters and Waterman’s Model of Excellence
It has been seen in the results of many studies that the Quinn and Cameron Model is very suitable in defining the variables belonging to the organizational culture. Cameron and Quinn (2017) stated that although many organizations enthusiastically apply New age management approaches and change strategies to manage change, their organizations do not increase their performance. The reason for this is that there are no change in the organization’s vital culture—way of thinking, management styles, and approaches to problem-solving, and that they remain the same.
Many studies conducted in the last 10 years show that the most emphasized reason for the failure of companies is the neglect of the organizational culture and the failure to change the organizational culture has affected this. Quinn et al. developed a model called “Competitive Values” that examines the relationship between organizational success and organizational culture. This model is based on empirical analysis of individuals’ value judgments for organizational effectiveness.
These authors use the “Organizational Culture Assessment Scale” to evaluate the organizational culture. This scale, which is the most frequently used tool in the world, is based on the competitive values model, which is the most widely used theoretical model to measure organizational culture.
The competitive values model defines the Basic assumptions (dominant characters, organizational bond), Interaction patterns (leadership, employee management), and the direction of the Organization (strategic importance, success criteria) that represent the essence of the culture. These features define 4 different types of culture (Cameron & Ettington, 1988).
The competitive values model has 2 dimensions that can be defined on two axes, as seen in Figure 1. The first dimension is the effectiveness criterion emphasizing flexibility, initiative, and dynamism; stasis distinguishes it from another criterion that emphasizes order and control. The second dimension distinguishes the effectiveness criterion, which emphasizes intro-orientation, integration,and unity, from the other criterion that emphasizes external orientation, differentiation,and competition (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
Figure 1. Cameron & Quinn competitive values model
turns out that the types of culture emerging with the competitive values model are exactly matched with the main organizational structures developed in organizational science. They also match basic management theories of organizational success, organizational quality approaches, leadership roles, and management skills (Cameron & Quinn, 2017). Below are the characteristics of 4 different types of culture that are thought to best define the basic values, assumptions, interpretations,and approaches that characterize an organization within the competitive values model.
It turns out that the types of culture emerging with the competitive values model are exactly matched with the main organizational structures developed in organizational science. They also match basic management theories of organizational success, organizational quality approaches, leadership roles, and management skills (Cameron & Quinn, 2017). Below are the characteristics of 4 different types of culture that are thought to best define the basic values, assumptions, interpretations,and approaches that characterize an organization within the competitive values model.
1.1 Clan (Cooperation) Culture
Among the emotions that dominate in clan-type organizations; shared values and goals, consistency, participation, individualism,and a sense of us. Typical characteristics of clan-type companies are teamwork, programs for employee participation, and companies’ commitment to employees. Evidence of these characteristics is semi-autonomous work teams that are rewarded based on team success and recruiting and firing their members, quality circles that encourage employees to voice their suggestions on how to improve their own and the company’s performance, and an empowering environment (Cameron & Quinn, 2011). Some of the basic assumptions of the clan collaboration culture are that the environment can be best managed with teamwork and employee participation, its customers should be
considered as stakeholders, the organization does business to create a humane working environment, and the main task of management is to empower employees and ensure their participation, commitment,and loyalty. The organization places great emphasis on teamwork participation and consensus (Kotter, 1992).
At the center of the model is the opportunity for people to fail as a team and to compensate for mistakes together. It is expressed as a friendly place where people spontaneously share a lot. Success is defined by the organizational climate and the interest in people (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
Leaders within the organization are perceived as mentors or even parents. The organization is kept together with loyalty and tradition. Commitment is high. The organization emphasizes the long-term benefits of individual development with commitment and Moral matters (Schein, 1996).
It refers to organizations that are intrinsic, unity and solidarity are important, organizational commitment is prominent, and informal control processes are dominant. Such organizations are like a family. Organization managers are in the role of parents (Dosoglu-Guner, 2001; Berrio, 2003; Dwyer et al., 2003).
1.2 Hierarchy (Control) Culture
This culture is known as Max Weber (1947)’s classic principles of bureaucracy. It includes Rules, Specialization, Qualification, Hierarchy, Division of Labor, Personnel Supremacy, Accountability. These features have been effective in achieving the goal and have been widely used by organizations whose main task is to produce efficient, reliable, trouble-free, predictable outputs (Schein,1999).
People’s work is controlled by certain methods. Effective leaders coordinate and organize the organization well. It is important to maintain a smoothly functioning organization. The organization’s long-term concerns are stability, predictability,and efficiency. Official policies and rules keep the organization together (Cameron & Quinn, 2017).
It is shaped between intra-organizational focus and stagnation-control dimensions. These represent mechanical and bureaucratic organizations. Order and rules are important in these cultures. It is clear who will do what and how. It is not allowed to go beyond the standards set for the institution (Schein, 1999).
According to Ouchi (1985), bureaucratic mechanisms tell a person: “do what we tell you, not what you want, because we are paying you for it”. Again, according to the author, the bureaucratic mechanism causes alienation, a decrease in the sense of autonomy and purposelessness. Deal and Kennedy (2000) use the definition of “process culture” for this type of culture
1.3 Market (Competitive) Culture
It refers to a type of organization that functions as a market. The organization focuses on transactions with external support groups such as suppliers, customers, contractors, rather than internal business (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
Market Competitive culture operates through economic market mechanisms, competition dynamics,and money exchange. In other words, the main focus of the market is on transactions with other support groups in order to gain a competitive advantage (Deal & Kennedy, 2000).
The primary objectives of the organization are profitability, end results, resilience to market demands, challenging success targets,and a guaranteed customer base. Naturally, the main values that dominate in market-type organizations are competitiveness and productivity (Cameron & Quinn, 2017).
Market-type organizations are achieved with a strong emphasis on competitiveness and productivity, externalization, and control. Market competition culture is a result oriented organizational culture (Jones, Jimmieson, & Griffiths, 2005).
The emphasis on winning is what keeps the organization together. Challenging success goals and objectives are achieved with competitive actions. Success is expressed in terms of market share and spread. It is important to beat everyone in the competition and market leadership (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
Market competitiveness refers to organizational environments that emphasize external orientation, competitiveness,and efficiency, but also have a stable and controlling aspect (Berrio, 2003; Pennington et al., 2003).
It is important to have a competitive advantage and market advantage in this cultivar. The success of the organization is evaluated by the increase in market share, the profit obtained ,and the tangible outputs (Ouchi, 1987).
Organizational employees are success-oriented in market culture and they focus on planning, performance,and effectiveness (Dosoglu Guner, 2001; Dwyer et al., 2003; Jung, 2003). Market culture leaders move fast. Leaders show a productive and competitive character. Reputation and success are important in this culture. The power that holds the organization together is the emphasis on winning (Dastmalchian et al., 2000).
1.4 Adhocracy (Creative) Culture
In this structure, it is thought that innovative and pioneering initiatives bring success. These types of organizations operate mainly to produce new products and services and to prepare for the future. The main task of management is to promote entrepreneurship, creativity,and cutting-edge technological activities (Jones, Jimmieson, & Griffiths, 2005).
These types of organizational structures can quickly reshape themselves according to new conditions. Especially in situations of indecision, ambiguity,and information overload, the main task of this type of organization is to encourage flexibility and creativity (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
This type of organization is characterized as a dynamic, entrepreneurial and creative
organization. People take responsibility and take risks. An effective leader is visionary, innovative,and risk oriented (Schein, 1999).
What holds the organization together is the commitment to experiment and innovation. The important thing is to be at the forefront of new information, products,and services. It is important to be prepared for change and tackle new challenges (Jones, Jimmieson, & Griffiths, 2005).
The long-term emphasis of the organization is on rapid growth and obtaining new resources. The organizational environment is organic, entrepreneurial, flexible, innovative, and creative (Stoica et al., 2004).
The definition of success in the organization is determined as producing unique and original products and services. Cameron and Quınn (2017) Within this structure, employees are encouraged to take initiative and risk personally, to make new inventions, and to have freedom (Dastmalchian et al., 2000; Ataman, 2001).
According to Daft (2004), organizations that need to act quickly to satisfy customers reflect this type of culture when necessary.
As a result, for An organizational change, it is necessary to integrate new age management approaches with approaches to change the culture of the organization. Humans are unaware of their own culture until they come into conflict, meet with a new culture, or appear explicitly through a framework or model.
Therefore, this study will support the efforts of sports organizations to define their own culture type and to change their dominant culture in order to improve their performance.
The research was conducted in a qualitative design. Qualitative research and qualitative data collection methods such as observation, interview, and document analysis allow perception and events to be presented in a realistic and holistic way in their natural environment (Yıldırım & Simsek, 2005).
Limitations: The study of the professional sports club in Turkey has been limited to the selected five clubs.
Participants: 10 managers in the sports club participated in the study. Development of Data Collection Tool: The data were collected by interviewing techniques
with experienced people in the management of the club. Semi-structured questions were asked in the interviews with the participants of the research, and each question was prepared to obtain different data.
Interview Technique and Questions: As the interview technique, Patton’s interview form approach was used and 4 open questions were prepared before hand. Questions in the interview form are as follows:
- What is important for harmony and commitment in sports clubs?
- What should be done to facilitate change and transformation in sports clubs?
- What characteristics should sports club managers have as a general business skill?
- What kind of management model is needed to increase efficiency in sports clubs?
Data analysis: The data were first written by the researcher and then the data were recorded using content analysis. The answers given by the participants to each question were grouped and interpreted in terms of similarities. In order to increase the reliability of the study, common points of the subjects were determined for the analysis of the data with the support of an expert.
Organizational culture defines appropriate behavior and relationships, motivates individuals,and offers solutions where there is uncertainty because culture guides the
organization in the regulation of knowledge,values,and internal relations,and shows its effect at all levels, visible and invisible.
According to the results of the research, it was seen that there are 4 different types of culture within the organization, such as Solidarity and Cooperation, Innovation, Being Competitive-Competitive, and Paying Attention to Hierarchy, which define the basic assumptions, orientations,and values.
These cultural differences show how things work in the organization, give employees a sense of identity, and imply unwritten and unspoken behavior in the organization.
These variables directly affect the way of doing business of the institution:
- Defining behaviors and relationships deemed appropriate to be implemented within the organization, motivating individuals and offering solutions where there is uncertainty.
- Manages the organization in the regulation of knowledge, values,and internal relations and shows its effect at all levels, visible and invisible.
The characteristics of the leaders who manage the organization will determine which of these culture types that can directly affect the performance of sports organization structures will be
chosen as the dominant culture.
In the research; The subjects representing the basic assumptions, orientations,and values within the organization have been examined within the framework of the dominant
characteristics, organizational boned, employee management, strategic importance ,and success criteria,and the conclusion is drawn below.
3.1 Theme 1
The culture type that emerged regarding the question of what is important for harmony and commitment in the culture of cooperation in sports clubs was found as “Solidarity and Cooperation” culture. In this culture;
Sports organizations work in partial autonomy as business teams. In the organization, there is an environment in which we, not me, are dominated by emotion, consensus and mutual solidarity are important, and mistakes are eliminated and rewarded as a team.
Synergy is created with the employees in the sense that they are part of the business team. The commitment of the employees to the institution is increased by their spontaneous participation.
In the organization, individuals are given the right to speak and become partners in decisions. In order to increase organizational performance, employees are given authority and responsibility, they are guided and encouraged to take initiative.
Flexibility in the application of the rules is the priority to develop a culture of cooperation. In this way, total quality management develops in cooperation.
The rights of the stakeholders of the club are well defined and sensitive to stakeholder demands and there is a strong communication network between them.
Organizational leaders are open to communication, directing, persuasive, patient,and compassionate, and give confidence to employees. The recruitment processes of the experts who are competent in their jobs are managed very well. Leaders take on the roles of both advisors and family elders.
Success in the organization is defined by the atmosphere of peace in the organizational work environment that puts people in the center. It is believed that giving importance to individual development, strengthening employee loyalty and increasing morale will contribute to
corporate success in the long term.
3.2 Theme 2
The culture type that emerged regarding the question of what should be done to facilitate change and transformation in Sports Organizations was found to be “An Innovative” culture.
In this culture;
In order to adapt to change, there is an innovative management approach in which the entrepreneurial spirit is kept alive within a dynamic, fast-moving,and flexible organ izational structure.
New products and services are given importance for continuity. An environment where original ideas will emerge is provided and creativity is encouraged. Success is mostly defined by initiatives that are innovative and different. The organization has advanced technology and this technology is used very well.
Organizational leaders take calculated risks to adapt to change. The leader has a vision and guides the employees in the organization within the framework of common goals. Within the organizational structure, employees are ready to take responsibility. Organization managers endeavor to develop an innovative understanding in the organization in order to motivate their employees and strengthen corporate belonging.
In order to make a difference in sportive products and services, the training of employees in
the institution is supported and they are provided with new information. Up-to-date
information is available and trends are closely followed to facilitate change and
transformation. The organization tries to reach new resources and grow by improving the
business area and service cycle. In this respect, corporate success is defined by having a
diversified range of services.
3.3 Theme 3
Regarding the question of what features should be found as a general business skill in Sports
Organizations, “The Culture of Being a Competitive” has been found. In this culture;
For the competitive advantage of the organization, it is ensured that the members of the
organization are experts in their field. Employees are competitive and goal-oriented.
The Leader carries its competitive edge to its employees to pursue corporate goals and is
dedicated to service.
People who are advanced in human and technical skills are worked in the organization.
Especially people with high technical skills are employed. In-service training is given
importance as a source of technical information.
Close contact is maintained with suppliers and contractors. The support of the fans is trusted
to ensure the competitive advantage of the institution. Changes in the sector are closely
monitored and competition dynamics are constantly analyzed.
What holds the organization together is the desire to win the championship and success.
Success is achieved with competitive actions. Work is result-oriented. Sportive success is the
most important criterion in competitor identity. In this respect, leaders are challenging and
In order to keep profitability sustainable, efforts are made to pursue championships and
increase the number of fans.
Market share is increased to stay ahead of the competition. With the recognition of the brand,
it is tried to go beyond the city where it is located.
3.4 Theme 4
Regarding the question of what kind of a management model is needed to increase efficiency
in sports organizations, the culture of “Emphasis on Hierarchy” has been found. In this
The organization has a clear mission that best describes the purpose of its establishment. This
mission includes goals, policies, rules, plans,and procedures. Compliance with the rules and
consistency is very important. The control and control system works actively.
Work in the organization is done within the framework of rules and procedures. An Internal
audit and control system is used to achieve predictable outputs efficiently within the process
Efforts are made to bring in experts who will contribute to the goals of the organization to the
institution. Efficient work is essential. Merit is the most important feature in the institution.
The functional areas are well defined in order to achieve corporate goals. Activities are
carried out in a hierarchy. In each function area, how to do things is well determined and the
division of labor is done accordingly. An understanding that does not depend on individuals is
developed and there is an accountability mechanism.
Leaders ensure correct organization, coordination,and control so that the organization can
reach its goals in the shortest way possible. In addition, the leader coordinates the activities
very well and tries to correct deviations from the target.
In order to increase productivity in organizations, predictable outputs in a timely manner are
achieved at minimum cost. Making decisions centrally reduces risks.
The effort to keep the organization together and ensure continuity is very important.
Organizational objectives are achieved in the most economical and efficient manner within a
stable structure. Institutional values, policies,and rules are given importance to build a stable
As a result, today, organizational culture plays an important role in companies gaining
competitive advantage. Organizational culture presents internal variables that give
organization members a different identity and help them to be connected to the organization
and are shared by members of the organization.
In today’s conditions where the technological ecosystem is constantly changing, one of the
most fundamental issues that organizations try to find answers to is how the change and
transformation in the organizational culture will be.
It turns out that the types of culture emerging with the competitive values model are exactly
matched with the main organizational structures developed in organizational science. They
also match basic management theories of organizational success, organizational quality
approaches, leadership roles, and management skills
It is believed that the strategic management approaches applied in sports management in our
country are not sufficient. Along with these approaches, it will be necessary to review the
organizational culture according to the new situation and conditions and to manage this
This study was carried out in order to define the cultural variables of sports organizations
with a dynamic structure.
In this study, the cultural variables and characteristics defining the organizational culture
types were determined and brought to the Table 1. This study confirms that these variables
are very close to the competitive value model.
Themes, Codes and Participants compiled from research participants on determining the cultural variables of sports clubs are shown in Table 2.
The statements of the participants in the research and the analysis made according to the claims and opinions of the authors in the field literature are given below.
4.1 Theme 1: Solidarity and Cooperation
Participants (1, 5, 7, 9) stated that “Expression of corporate values and goals in sports organizations supports the efforts of employees to achieve these goals” and “Cameron and Quinn (2017)’s claim” shared values and goals, consistency, participation, and sense of us are dominant in Clan-type organizations shows paralysis. Participants (1, 5, 7, 9) stated that “The organization should be structured like semi-independent and autonomous business teams”, “Participation in teamwork and acting in consensus should be encouraged and the opportunity should be given to evaluate and solve failures as a team”. Cameron and Quinn (2017) argue that “Some of the basic assumptions of clan-type companies include semi-autonomous teamwork (failure as a team and making up for mistakes together), consensus, programs for employee involvement, and companies’
commitment to employees”. The opinions of the participants support the claims of the authors.
Participants (2, 5, 7, 9) stated that “Managers should strive for the development of emotion,
not me”, “Individuals should be given the right to speak about achieving corporate goals, and
they should be a partner in decisions”, “Employees should be included in total quality
Management practices”. Cameron and Quinn (2017) claim that “Clan type organizations are a
friendly place where people share a lot of themselves”, “The organization encourages its
employees to voice suggestions on how to improve the company’s performance”, “The
organization has an environment that empowers employees within quality circles”. The
opinions of the participants are close to the claims of the authors.
Participants (1, 2) stated that “In order to develop a culture of cooperation,
intra-organizational culture development should be considered as a priority. Stakeholders’
rights should be recognized and stakeholder demands should be sensitive”, “There should be
flexibility in the application of the rules to improve cooperation”. Cameron and Quınn (2017)
claim that “In clan-type organizations, customers are considered as stakeholders”, “The main
task of the organization is to empower the employees and to provide a humane working
environment in order to ensure their participation and loyalty”. The opinions of the
participants overlap with the statements of the authors.
Participants: “The duty of the top management of the organization is to value its employees
for a peaceful working environment in the organization, to empower them within their job
descriptions, to ensure their participation in the decisions to be taken”, “In this way, the
employee’s sense of commitment to the institution will be strengthened and the employee’s
performance will increase”, “Organization leaders should be open to communication,
directing, patient and compassionate, and give confidence to employees”. Cameron and
Quınn (2017) claim that “Clan-type organizations are like a large family”, “Leaders are
perceived as mentors or even parents, and the organization is held together by loyalty and
tradition”, “Employee engagement improves”. The expressions of the participants are close to
the statements of the authors.
Participants (4, 8) stated that: “It would be appropriate to create a family environment and to
use any kind of social environment for the development of the employee’s sense of loyalty to
the organization”, “Leaders assume the role of advisors in such an environment”. Cameron
and Quinn (2017) claim that “In clan-type organization, the organization emphasizes the
long-term benefits of individual development with commitment and places emphasis on
morale”. The statements of the participants are close to the claims of the authors.
Participants (1, 3, 4) stated that: “Defining the success in the organization with the
atmosphere of peace in the work environment that puts people at the center will make it
easier to reach other goals”, “Giving importance to individual development will strengthen
employee loyalty, increase morale and contribute to corporate success in the long term”.
Cameron and Quinn (2017) claim that “The criteria for success in clan-type organizations are
defined by the organizational climate and the interest in people”. The statements of the
participants support the findings of the authors.
4.2 Theme 2: Innovative
Participants (1, 3, 5, 8) stated that “The change in technology needs to differentiate human
needs and to have an innovative management approach to respond to this change”, “It is
important for organizations to have digital technology and to use this technology very well in
order to ensure continuity in their work”. Kotter (1992) states that “Innovative and pioneering
initiatives within the creative culture bring success”, “These types of organizations operate
mainly to produce new products and services and to prepare for the future”, “The main task
of the management is to encourage entrepreneurship, creativity and cutting-edge
technological activities”. The opinions of the participants support the authors’ claim.
Participants (1, 3, 6) stated that “Original ideas and creativity should be encouraged in order
to emerge new products and services that will support sustainability”. Today, success is
defined by more innovative and different initiatives. Kotter (1992) stated that “Organizations
with a creative culture type can rapidly reshape according to new conditions”, “This
organizational structure is one that best suits the conditions that represent the organizational
world of the 21st century, which are overly turbulent and constantly gaining momentum. The
statements of the participants are close to the claims of the authors.
Participants (1, 5) stated that “In order to keep up with social change, sports organization
structures should be structured in a flexible model and react quickly to events”, “Creativity
should be encouraged to anticipate people’s needs”. Deal and Kennedy (2000) stated that
“The main task of this type of organization is to promote adaptability, flexibility, and
creativity in situations of indecision, ambiguity and information overload”. Daft (2004)
claims that “organizations that need to act quickly to please customers reflect this type of
culture when necessary”. The opinions of the participants support the claims of the authors.
Participants (1, 4, 7) state that “Organizations should have a dynamic organizational structure,
keep the entrepreneurial spirit warm and give importance to creativity in order to realize
change and transformation quickly”. Cameron and Quinn (2017) claim that “This type of
organization is characterized as a dynamic, entrepreneurial and creative organization”. The
statements of the participants are parallel to the opinions of the authors.
The participants (2, 5, 9) state that “The leaders of the organization must take calculated risks
to adapt to change, have a vision and guide the employees in the institution within the
framework of common goals”. Deal and Kennedy (2000) claim that “Effective leader is
visionary, innovative and risk-oriented. People take responsibility and take risks”.
Dastmalchiani (2000), and Ataman (2001) claim that “In this structure, employees are encouraged to take initiative and risk personally, to make new inventions and their freedom”. The statements of the participants are close to the claims of the authors. Participants (3, 8, 10) stated that “Employees should be ready to take responsibility”. Themotivation of the employees in the organization is research and development and the
development of an innovative understanding in the institution, which also strengthens corporate belonging. Jones, Jimmieson, and Griffiths (2005) claim that “What holds the organization together is the commitment to experimentation and innovation”. The statements of the participants support the authors’ claim.
Participants (1, 3, 4, 6) stated that: “In order to make a difference in products and services, it
is necessary to support the training of the employees in the Institution and to ensure that they
access new information”, “In times of chaos, having up-to-date information and following
trends will be an important guide to be ready for change”. Schein (1999) claims that “What
matters is to be at the forefront of new information, products and services”, “It is important to
be ready for change and overcome new challenges”. The statements of the participants are
close to the claims of the authors.
Participants (2, 5, 8, 9) “The organization should try to survive for continuity, by enlarging
the business area and service cycle”, “It is necessary to build a trustworthy structure in order
to reach new resources”, “The thing that will define corporate success is to have a diversified
range of products and services”. Jones, Jimmieson, and Griffiths (2005) stated that “The
organization focuses on long-term, rapid growth and obtaining new resources”, “The
definition of success is to produce unique and original products and services”. Stoica (2004)
states that “The organization refers to organizational cultural environments that are organic,
entrepreneurial, flexible, innovative and creative”. The statements of the participants coincide
with the claims of the authors.
4.3 Theme 3: Being a Competitive
Participants (2, 5, 7, 9) state that “It is important to provide a competitive advantage for the
continuity of the organization”, “In order to provide a competitive advantage, it is necessary
to ensure that the individuals working in the organization structure are experts in their field”,
“To be goal-oriented, must be productive”. Schein (1999) states that “The primary objectives
of the organization are profitability, final results, resilience to market demands, challenging
success targets and guaranteed customer base”, “The main values that are dominant in
market-type organizations are naturally competitiveness and productivity”. The opinions of
the participants support the claims of the authors.
Participants (2, 4, 5) stated that “Specialists are expected to have the ability to do, perform,
and finalize a job”, “In order to be competitive, management skills are important in
organizations. It is necessary to work with people who have advanced technical skills”. Jones,
Jimmieson, and Griffiths (2005) state that “Productivity matters. Market-type organizations
emphasize external positioning and control for competitiveness and productivity”. The
opinions of the participants support the authors’ claim.
Participants (1, 5, 10) stated that “Changes in the sector should be closely monitored, competition dynamics should be analyzed continuously”, “In free market conditions, it is
necessary to be in close contact with fans, suppliers, and contractors for competitive
advantage”. Cameron and Quinn (2017) state that “this type of organization refers to a type of
organization that functions as a market”, “The organization focuses on transactions with
external support groups such as suppliers, customers, contractors within its external
environment rather than its internal business”, “It operates through market-competitive
culture, economic market mechanisms, competition dynamics, and money exchange”. Berrio
and Pennington (2003) state that “Competition culture refers to organizational environments
that emphasize external orientation, competitiveness, and efficiency, but are stable and have a
control aspect”. The expressions of the participants are close to the opinions of the people.
Participants (2, 5, 7, 9) stated that “Sports clubs are result-oriented structures and Sportive
success is the most important criterion”, “Leaders are challenging and persistent in this
respect”, “It is necessary to achieve success with competitive actions, to be ahead of the
competition, to increase its market share, to go beyond the city where it is located with brand
recognition”. Schein (1999) states that “What keeps the organization together is the emphasis
on winning”, “With competitive actions, challenging success goals and objectives are
achieved”, “Success is expressed by market share and spreading, outpacing everyone in
competition and market leadership is important”. The statements of the participants support
the claims of the authors.
Participants (1, 5, 6, 8) stated that “What holds the organization together is the desire to win
the championship and success”. Dosoglu-Guner (2001), and Dwyer and Jung (2003) state that
“Organization employees are success-oriented and focus on planning, performance and
effectiveness”. Dastmalchian (2000) states that “leaders of the market culture act fast and
show a productive and competitive character”, “Reputation and success are important in this
culture”, “It is the emphasis on gaining power that holds the organization together”. The
opinions of the participants support the authors’ claim.
Participants (1, 3, 4, 8) stated that “Success in sports is to become an organization that
pursues championships, dominate the market in this way and make it sustainable”. Schein
(1999) claims that “Market-competitive culture is a result-oriented organizational culture”,
“Leaders here are challenging”. Ouchi (1987) claims that “It is important to have competitive
advantage and market superiority in this type of culture”, “The success of the organization is
evaluated by the increase in market share, the profit and concrete outputs”. The opinions of
the participants are close to the claims of the authors.
4.4 Theme 4: Emphasize on Hierarchy
Participants (1, 4, 5, 7) stated that “The aims, policies, plans and procedures should be
completed in order to realize the mission of the organization”, “Merit should be the most
important feature in the institution”. Participants (3, 4) stated that “the functional areas in the
organizational structure should be determined well and division of labor should be done
accordingly”, “Activities should be carried out in a hierarchy within the organizational
Participants (1, 5) stated that “an understanding that does not depend on the people
based on the institution should be developed and there should be an accountability mechanism”. Cameron and Quinn (2017) stated that “Max Weber (1947)’s classic principles
of bureaucracy take place in the Hierarchy control culture. Among them, Rules,
Specialization, Qualification, Hierarchy, Division of Labor, Individuals supremacy,
Accountability stand out”. The statements of the participants support the claims of the
Participants (1, 2, 5, 6) stated that “Leadership is the most important issue of a sports
organization”, “Leaders need to organize correctly in a way that the organization can achieve
its goals and coordinate its activities very well”, “People’s work is controlled with certain
methods, effective leaders coordinate and organize the organization well”. Deal and Kennedy
(2000) state that “Order and rules are important in these cultures”, “It is clear who will do
what and how to do it”, “These determined standards are not desired to be exited”. Ouchi
(1987) states that “bureaucratic mechanisms tell the person: do not what you want, but what
we tell you because we are paying you for it”. The statements of the participants are close to
the claims of the authors.
Participants (1, 3, 6, 7) stated that “The most important issue affecting productivity in
organizations is to reach the predictable outputs in process management with minimum cost”.
Jones, Jimmieson, and Griffiths (2005) state that “This type of organization has been
particularly effective in achieving the goal”, “They have been widely used by organizations
whose main task is to produce efficient, reliable, trouble-free, predictable outputs”. Deal and
Kennedy (1982) state that “it uses the definition of ‘process culture’ for this type of culture”.
The statements of the participants support the claims of the authors.
Participants (3, 6, 7, 10) state that “Taking decisions centrally reduces the risks”, “It will be
appropriate to use the internal audit system to achieve predictable outputs and to do business
in the organization within the framework of rules and procedures”. Schein (1999) states that
“People’s work is controlled by certain methods, effective leaders coordinate and organize the
organization well”, “It is important to maintain a smoothly functioning organization”, “The
long-term goal of the organization is stability, predictability and efficiency”, “Official
policies and rules keep the organization together”. The statements of the participants are
parallel to the claims of the authors.
Akben, A., & Yesil, S. (2015). The Effects of the Degree of Internationalization on Business
Performance: A Field Study. Eurasian Academy of Science Eurasian Business & Academics
Journal, 1, 69-85. https://doi.org/10.17740/eas.econ.2015-V1-03
Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding Organizational Culture.
London: Sage Publications.
Ataman, G. (2001). Işletme Yönetimi. Istanbul: Türkmen Kitabevi.
Berrio, A, A. (2003). An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values
Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension. Journal of Extension, 41(2).
Brown, B. (2003). Employees’ Organizational Commitment and Their Perception of Journal of Educational Issues ISSN 2377-2263 2021, Vol. 7, No. 1
Supervisors’ Relations-Oriented and Task-Oriented Leadership Behaviors (PhD Thesis,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia).
Commeron, K. S., & Ettington, D. R. (1988). The conceptual Foundation of Organizational
Culture. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research (p. 4).
Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer.
Commeron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture:
Based on the Competing Values Framework. Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 741-778.
Commeron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2017). Organizational diagnosis and change (Competitive
Values Model). In M. G. Gülhan, & N. Cemaloğlu (Trans.), Organization Culture (3rd ed.).
Commeron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E., & Degraff, J., & Thakor, A. (2006). Competing Value
Leadership: Creating Value in Organizations. Northhampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar.
Culverson, D. (2002). Exploring organizational commitment following radical change: A
case study within the Parks Canada Agency. UWSpace.
Daft, R. L. (2004). Organization Theory and Design. Ohio: South Western.
Dastmalchaian, A., Sanghol, L., & Ignace, N. G. (2002). The Interplay Between
Organizational and National Cultures: A Comparison of Organizational Practices in Canada
and South Korea Using the Competing Values Framework. International Journal of Human
Resource Management, 11(2), 388-412.
Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (2002). Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life.
Academy of Management Review, 9(2).
Denison, D. R. (1990). Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. New York:
Deshpande, R., & John, U. F. (2004). Organizational Culture, Market Orientation,
Innovativeness, and Firm Performance: An International Research Odyssey. International
Journal of Research in Marketing, 21, 3-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2003.04.002
Detert, J. R., & Schroder, R. G., & Mauriel, J. J. (2000). A Framework for linking Culture and
Improvement Initiative in Organizations. Academy of Management Review, 25, 850-863.
Dosoglu, G. B. (2001). Can Organizational Behavior Explain the Export Intention of Firms?
The Effects of Organizational Culture and Ownership Type. International Business Review,
10, 71-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(00)00040-8
Dwyer, S., Orlando, R., & Chadwick, K. (2003). Gender Diversity in Management and Firm
Performance: The Influence of Growth Orientation and Organizational Culture. Journal of
Business Research, 56(12), 1009-1019. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00329-0
Handy, C. (1996). Gods of Management: The Changing Work of Organizations. Oxford
University Press, UK.
Jones, R. A., Jimieson, N., & Griffiths, A. (2005). The Impact of Organizational Culture and
Reshaping Capabilities on Change Implementation Success: The Mediating Role of
Readiness for Change. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 361-386. https://doi.org/
Jung, S. (2003). The Effects of Organizational Culture on Conflict Resolution in Marketing.
Journal of American Academy of Business, 3(1/2), 242-246.
Kotter, J. (1992). Corporate Culture and Performance. Free Press.
Lawrence, K., Quinn, R. E., & Lenk, P. (2009). Behavioral Complexity in Leadership: The
psychometric Properties of a New Instrument to Measure Behavioral Repertoire. The
Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 87-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.01.014
Moores, K., & Joseph, M. (2000). The Salience of Market, Bureaucratic, and Clan Controls
in the Management of Family Firm Transitions: Some Tentative Australian Evidence. Family
Business Review, XIII(2), 91-106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2000.00091.x
Mwaura, G. M., Sutton, J., & Roberts, D. (1998). Corporate and National Culture—An
Irreconcilable Dilemma for the Hospitality Manager. International Journal of Contemporary
Hospitality Management, 10(6), 212-220. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596119810232211
Ouchi, W. G. (1980). Markets, Bureaucracies, and Clans. Administrative Science Quarterly,
25, 129-141. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392231
Ouchi, W. G., & Alan, L. W. (1985). Organizational Culture. Annual Review of Sociology, 11,
Oudenhoven, J. P. (2001). Do Organizations Reflect National Cultures? A 10-Nation Study.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(1), 89-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/
Pennington, P., Christine, T., & Richard, C. (2003). The Relationship of Leadership Practices
to Culture. Journal of Leadership Education, 2(1), 31-44. https://doi.org/10.12806/V2/I1/RF2
Schein, E. (1996). Organizational Culture and Leadership. Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Schein, E. (1999). The Corporate Culture Survival Guide. Jossey Bass Publishers.
Stoica, M., Jianwen, L., & Karold, W. (2004). Organizational Culture and Patterns of
Information Processing: The Case of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Journal of
Developmental Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 240-251.
Trice, H. M., & Beyer, J. M. (1993). The cultures of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Van Der Zee, K. I., & Van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2001). The Multicultural Personality
Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity of Self and Other Ratings of Multicultural
Effectiveness. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 278-288. https://doi.org/10.1006/
Wilkinns, A. L., & Quchi, W. G. (1983). Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship
between Culture and Organizational Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28,
Yıldırım, A., & Simsek, H. (2005). Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences (p. 366,
5th ed.). Ankara: Seckin Publishing.
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative
Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).